Physical Geography
  Tectonics and Geology
  Climatic Change
  Climate at Present and in the Past
  Rivers, Lakes, Seas and Wetlands

Biomes & Regions
  Arctic Environments
  Boreal Forests
  Mixed and Deciduous Forests
  Steppe and Forest-steppe
  Arid Environments
  The Mountains of Northern Russia
  The Mountains of Southern Siberia
  The Caucasus
  The Mountains of Central Asia
  Lake Baikal
  The Far East

Environmental Problems
  Radioactive Contamination
  Oil and Gas Development
  Air Pollution
  The Aral Sea Problems
  Deforestation and Degradation of Forests
  Nature Protection and Conservation

Images of Russian Nature
  Geographic Index
  Systematic Index
  Alphabetical Index

Nature Reserves
  Northern Russia
  Central Russia
  Povolzhye (Volga river basin)
  Southern Russia
  Ural Mountains
  Western Siberia
  Eastern Siberia
  Far East

‘отографии природы –оссии
  √еографический каталог
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Nature Landscapes of the World
  North America
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Field Ecology Education
  Instructive Videos
  Instructive Manuals

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Russian Nature

Home | Physical Geography | Biomes & Regions | Environmental Problems | Images of Russian Nature | Nature Reserves

Our Field Ecology Center published more than 180 methodical materials for nature studies. Some of them are in English:
Mobile educational application: Ecological Field Studies Techniques on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of North America: Songs and Calls Decoys on Play.Google WILD FLOWERS OF RUSSIA Field Identification Guide on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Russia on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Russia Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Europe Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Europe Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google
Mobile Educational Apps and Field Identification Guides for Russian, European and American Birds
Applications for Android and iOS are available at GooglePlay and AppStore

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Physical Geography of Northern Eurasia

Climate at Present and in the Historical Past

<<< Climate within the Period of Instrumental Meteorological Records | Physical Geography Index | Soils: Introduction >>>


Encompassing one-sixth of the terrestrial Earth, Northern Eurasia has a variety of climates ranging from the polar deserts to subtropics. Not surprisingly, climatology as an academic discipline has a long tradition here. National identity, that of an observant, patient, resourceful person for whom hardships and distances are no object, helped. (Those, who stand on deterministic position, argue that such an identity has formed under the influence of long and severe winters!) Medieval monks chronicled weather with amazing consistency and objectivity. Explorers in the 16th and 17th century described climates of the most remote regions of Siberia and Pacific. Members of the Great Northern Expeditions, accomplished under the command of Vitus Bering, established a network of meteorological stations all the way between the Volga and the Pacific. The establishment of a major centre for climatological research, the Major Physical Observatory in St. Petersburg, gave a new impetus to scientific work. The first scientific climatological projects were accomplished and the first scientific publications, concerned specifically with climate, were published: Climatological Essay on Russia and The Climate of Russia by Veselovsky, Climates of the World and Russia in Particular by Voeikov. Two types of landscapes dominate Northern Eurasia: forests and steppes. Two types of economic activity have been traditionally of national importance: forestry and agriculture. Russian climatologists were among the first to analyse the influence of forests on climate. Already at the beginning of the 19th century, Karazin published a monograph УThe Importance of Forestry, Especially for RussiaФ where he addressed this issue. Climatology of droughts was researched comprehensively, especially in the context of southern European Russia and Ukraine, and a vast body of literature on droughts exists dating back to the 18th century. Climatological research diversified with time but one particular dimension, physical climatology which is concerned with studies of the energy budget, has acquired a worldwide reputation. Contemporary climatological research continues these traditions. In addition, as in other parts of the world, the problems of climatic change and variability, pioneered by a Russian climatologist, Budyko, are now a priority. The current period of climatic warming may have strong implications for the sensitive environments in Eurasia and in other parts of the world, not least via the teleconnections existing between the Eurasian snow cover, monsoon, and ENSO. The causes, nature and impacts of past, present and indeed the future climatic changes in Northern Eurasia present a challenge and endless research opportunities.

<<< Climate within the Period of Instrumental Meteorological Records | Physical Geography Index | Soils: Introduction >>>




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