Physical Geography
  Tectonics and Geology
  Climatic Change
  Climate at Present and in the Past
  Rivers, Lakes, Seas and Wetlands

Biomes & Regions
  Arctic Environments
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  Mixed and Deciduous Forests
  Steppe and Forest-steppe
  Arid Environments
  The Mountains of Northern Russia
  The Mountains of Southern Siberia
  The Caucasus
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  Lake Baikal
  The Far East

Environmental Problems
  Radioactive Contamination
  Oil and Gas Development
  Air Pollution
  The Aral Sea Problems
  Deforestation and Degradation of Forests
  Nature Protection and Conservation

Images of Russian Nature
  Geographic Index
  Systematic Index
  Alphabetical Index

Nature Reserves
  Northern Russia
  Central Russia
  Povolzhye (Volga river basin)
  Southern Russia
  Ural Mountains
  Western Siberia
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  Far East

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Nature Landscapes of the World
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Field Ecology Education
  Instructive Videos
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Russian Nature

Home | Physical Geography | Biomes & Regions | Environmental Problems | Images of Russian Nature | Nature Reserves

Our Field Ecology Center published more than 180 methodical materials for nature studies. Some of them are in English:
Mobile educational application: Ecological Field Studies Techniques on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of North America: Songs and Calls Decoys on Play.Google WILD FLOWERS OF RUSSIA Field Identification Guide on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Russia on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Russia Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Europe Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Europe Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google
Mobile Educational Apps and Field Identification Guides for Russian, European and American Birds
Applications for Android and iOS are available at GooglePlay and AppStore

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Environmental problems of Northern Eurasia

Air Pollution

<<< Case Study. Moscow: From Plan to Market in a Private Car | Environmental Problems Index | The Aral Sea >>>


Urban air pollution has long been a serious problem in the FSU, reflecting both the importance of highly polluting, resource-intensive industries for the national economy and political factors such as the low priority of environmental issues and lack of public participation. At the beginning of the transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy and a more open society, it was assumed that environmental performance in the FSU would improve. In particular, a shift away from heavy industries to less resource-intensive sectors and improvements in energy efficiency were expected to reduce air pollution levels. All countries of the FSU experienced a decline in industrial output following the change in economic regime and emissions of main pollutants have fallen as a result of a slump in production.

Many commentators saw this as a much needed break for the environment. However, while absolute levels of emissions have decreased, the ongoing economic crisis and persisting financial problems have ensured that decreases in emissions have been smaller than declines in output as a result of the associated deterioration of regulatory mechanisms, a lack of investment into pollution abatement equipment, weak enforcement of environmental legislation and public disengagement. In the areas benefiting from economic changes, and especially in large cities, environmental pressures have increased because of growing car ownership. As the environmental benefits of the economic downturn are uncertain, and new sets of pollution problems face the FSU, has economic restructuring been good for the environment? When and where will emissions return to their pre-transition level? Is decoupling of economic and emission trends feasible? How to implement the 'win-win' strategies in the future? Pursuing the transformation of their country into the world's most industrialized society, the Soviets believed that these problems could be solved. Or could they?

<<< Case Study. Moscow: From Plan to Market in a Private Car | Environmental Problems Index | The Aral Sea >>>



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