Physical Geography
  Tectonics and Geology
  Climatic Change
  Climate at Present and in the Past
  Rivers, Lakes, Seas and Wetlands

Biomes & Regions
  Arctic Environments
  Boreal Forests
  Mixed and Deciduous Forests
  Steppe and Forest-steppe
  Arid Environments
  The Mountains of Northern Russia
  The Mountains of Southern Siberia
  The Caucasus
  The Mountains of Central Asia
  Lake Baikal
  The Far East

Environmental Problems
  Radioactive Contamination
  Oil and Gas Development
  Air Pollution
  The Aral Sea Problems
  Deforestation and Degradation of Forests
  Nature Protection and Conservation

Images of Russian Nature
  Geographic Index
  Systematic Index
  Alphabetical Index

Nature Reserves
  Northern Russia
  Central Russia
  Povolzhye (Volga river basin)
  Southern Russia
  Ural Mountains
  Western Siberia
  Eastern Siberia
  Far East

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Nature Landscapes of the World
  North America
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Field Ecology Education
  Instructive Videos
  Instructive Manuals

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Russian Nature

Home | Physical Geography | Biomes & Regions | Environmental Problems | Images of Russian Nature | Nature Reserves

Our Field Ecology Center published more than 180 methodical materials for nature studies. Some of them are in English:
Mobile educational application: Ecological Field Studies Techniques on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of North America: Songs and Calls Decoys on Play.Google WILD FLOWERS OF RUSSIA Field Identification Guide on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Russia on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Russia Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Europe Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Europe Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google
Mobile Educational Apps and Field Identification Guides for Russian, European and American Birds
Applications for Android and iOS are available at GooglePlay and AppStore

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Biomes and Regions of Northern Eurasia

Mixed and Deciduous Forests

<<< The Changing Nature of Forests | Biomes & Regions Index | Steppe and Forest-stepp: Introduction >>>


At present, in the European mixed forest zone woodlands occupy not more than 35-45 per cent of the whole territory of Estonia, Kaliningrad region, Belarus, and Central Russia. In the deciduous forest zone, the coverage is lower; only 13 per cent of the Tula region is forested. Afforestation took place between the 1950s and 1970s in response to the migration of the rural population to cities (Mandych, 1989). The area of arable land was reduced by more than 2 million ha, of hayfields by 4 million, and of pastures by 1 million. However, it was mainly less valuable secondary tree species that developed.

The decline in woodlands and the alteration (most often a simplification) of their composition have had wide environmental implications, especially with respect to faunal biodiversity and hydrological regime. To halt degradation of woodlands, forest management and afforestation programmes have been widely introduced. The measures include removal of dead and damaged trees, amelioration of forests, establishment and wide use of forest nurseries, applications of fertilizers, and many others. However, rates of afforestation in Northern Eurasia remain lower than in Central and northwestern Europe. Further development and a broader introduction of sustainable management policies, which encourage growth and entail the maintenance of forests, effective and enforceable legislative infrastructure, as well as the use of recent innovations (biotechnology) are therefore much needed.

<<< The Changing Nature of Forests | Biomes & Regions Index | Steppe and Forest-stepp: Introduction >>>



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