Home

Physical Geography
  Tectonics and Geology
  Climatic Change
  Climate at Present and in the Past
  Soils
  Rivers, Lakes, Seas and Wetlands
  Permafrost
  Biodiversity

Biomes & Regions
  Arctic Environments
  Boreal Forests
  Mixed and Deciduous Forests
  Steppe and Forest-steppe
  Arid Environments
  The Mountains of Northern Russia
  The Mountains of Southern Siberia
  The Caucasus
  The Mountains of Central Asia
  Lake Baikal
  The Far East

Environmental Problems
  Radioactive Contamination
  Oil and Gas Development
  Air Pollution
  The Aral Sea Problems
  Deforestation and Degradation of Forests
  Nature Protection and Conservation

Images of Russian Nature
  Geographic Index
  Systematic Index
  Alphabetical Index

Nature Reserves
  Northern Russia
  Central Russia
  Povolzhye (Volga river basin)
  Southern Russia
  Ural Mountains
  Western Siberia
  Eastern Siberia
  Far East


Фотографии природы России
  Географический каталог
  Систематический каталог
  Алфавитный каталог


Nature Landscapes of the World
  Europe
  Asia
  North America
  South America
  Africa
  Australia
  Antarctic

Field Ecology Education
  Instructive Videos
  Instructive Manuals


Share this page with your friends:



( ) : : = = + +


Russian Nature

Home | Physical Geography | Biomes & Regions | Environmental Problems | Images of Russian Nature | Nature Reserves


Please put an active hyperlink to our site (www.rusnature.info) when you copy the materials from this page

Physical Geography of Northern Eurasia

Rivers, Lakes, Inland Seas, and Wetlands

<<< Rivers, Lakes, Inland Seas, and Wetlands (Introduction and Index) | Physical Geography Index | Elements of Water Balance >>>

Hydrological Measurements

Hydrological measurements, such as water levels during floods and freshets, have been recorded in Russia and other countries of Northern Eurasia for centuries, measurements being taken irregularly at water mills and in monasteries set on rivers and lakes (Sokolov, 1981). The first regular hydrological observations in Russia were organized under the order of Peter the Great in the early 18th century on the Neva river at the Petropavlovsk fortress in St. Petersburg. Soon, runoff was measured with some regularity on a number of large rivers including the Volga. Regular observations began in the 19th century and since then the hydrometric network was constantly improving until 1990. In 1960, the national stream-gauging network consisted of 5866 sites (Sokolov, 1964). Hydrological statistics, used in many publications including atlases (e.g., Voskresensky, 1962; Protasyev, 1967; Lvovich, 1969, 1974) and employed in this chapter, have been derived from this network. In addition, there were over 2800 sites which belonged to various organizations. The density of the national network is on average one site per 3820 km2 (for comparison, in the United States there is one site per 1972 km2, in Canada 8871, in France 548, in India 9735, and in China 3104 km2). The spatial distribution of the sites is uneven and in the European territory the network is much denser (one site per 1580 km2) than in the Asiatic part (one site per 7000 km2). Although after 1990 the monitoring program was reduced it still remains substantial.

<<< Rivers, Lakes, Inland Seas, and Wetlands (Introduction and Index) | Physical Geography Index | Elements of Water Balance >>>

 

 

 


Recommend this page to your friends:


* * | |