Physical Geography
  Tectonics and Geology
  Climatic Change
  Climate at Present and in the Past
  Rivers, Lakes, Seas and Wetlands

Biomes & Regions
  Arctic Environments
  Boreal Forests
  Mixed and Deciduous Forests
  Steppe and Forest-steppe
  Arid Environments
  The Mountains of Northern Russia
  The Mountains of Southern Siberia
  The Caucasus
  The Mountains of Central Asia
  Lake Baikal
  The Far East

Environmental Problems
  Radioactive Contamination
  Oil and Gas Development
  Air Pollution
  The Aral Sea Problems
  Deforestation and Degradation of Forests
  Nature Protection and Conservation

Images of Russian Nature
  Geographic Index
  Systematic Index
  Alphabetical Index

Nature Reserves
  Northern Russia
  Central Russia
  Povolzhye (Volga river basin)
  Southern Russia
  Ural Mountains
  Western Siberia
  Eastern Siberia
  Far East

‘отографии природы –оссии
  √еографический каталог
  —истематический каталог
  јлфавитный каталог

Nature Landscapes of the World
  North America
  South America

Field Ecology Education
  Instructive Videos
  Instructive Manuals

Ёкологический ÷ентр Ёкосистема на Facebook Ёкологический ÷ентр Ёкосистема ¬ онтакте

ётуб канал Ёкосистема YouTube EcosystemaRu

—качать приложени€ Ёкосистемы Ёко√ид из магазина Google Play / Play Market
—качать приложени€ Ёкосистемы Ёко√ид из AppStore / iTunes
¬идео-360 по экологии на нашем Youtube канале

Bird Decoys for European Birds: Songs, Calls, Sounds, Bird voices - application for Android download from Google Play / Play Market for free

Share this page with your friends:

( ) : : = = + +

Russian Nature

Home | Physical Geography | Biomes & Regions | Environmental Problems | Images of Russian Nature | Nature Reserves

Our Field Ecology Center published more than 180 methodical materials for nature studies. Some of them are in English:
Mobile educational application: Ecological Field Studies Techniques on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of North America: Songs and Calls Decoys on Play.Google WILD FLOWERS OF RUSSIA Field Identification Guide on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Russia on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Russia Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Europe Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Europe Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google
Mobile Educational Apps and Field Identification Guides for Russian, European and American Birds
Applications for Android and iOS are available at GooglePlay and AppStore

Please put an active hyperlink to our site (www.rusnature.info) when you copy the materials from this page

Environmental problems of Northern Eurasia

Deforestation and Degradation of Forests

<<< The History and Scale of Deforestation | Environmental Problems Index | Commercial Exploitation of Forests >>>

Classification of Forest Resources

In the countries of the FSU, three main systems of forest classification are used, based on: (I) species; (II) age characteristics; and (III) degree of depletion and protection. While detailed botanical classifications of forests are available (Chapters 9 and 10), with respect to industrial practices trees are divided into softwood and hardwood. Evergreen conifers and larch are classified as softwood, while deciduous species are classified as hardwood. The classification based on age of stands recognizes the following classes: young (under 20 years), juvenile and average (20-60), and mature and over mature stands (over 60 years). The last group is exploited commercially.

With respect to availability of forests and a need for their protection, forests, and woodlands of Northern Eurasia are subdivided into: (I) protected forests and woodlands which include nature reserves, national parks, greenbelts, and riparian zones; (II) forests and woodlands which occur in densely populated areas and regions with limited timber resources; and (III) forests, which apart from other functions, are intended for commercial production of wood. Felling is prohibited in the forests of the first group except for beneficial cutting which is carried out for overmature stands, trees infected with insects and fungi, and for windfalls. In the forests of the second group, fellings should not exceed the calculated allowable cut (CAC). The third group is the largest and includes about 90 per cent of all forests of Northern Eurasia.

<<< The History and Scale of Deforestation | Environmental Problems Index | Commercial Exploitation of Forests >>>



Recommend this page to your friends:

* *