Physical Geography
  Tectonics and Geology
  Climatic Change
  Climate at Present and in the Past
  Rivers, Lakes, Seas and Wetlands

Biomes & Regions
  Arctic Environments
  Boreal Forests
  Mixed and Deciduous Forests
  Steppe and Forest-steppe
  Arid Environments
  The Mountains of Northern Russia
  The Mountains of Southern Siberia
  The Caucasus
  The Mountains of Central Asia
  Lake Baikal
  The Far East

Environmental Problems
  Radioactive Contamination
  Oil and Gas Development
  Air Pollution
  The Aral Sea Problems
  Deforestation and Degradation of Forests
  Nature Protection and Conservation

Images of Russian Nature
  Geographic Index
  Systematic Index
  Alphabetical Index

Nature Reserves
  Northern Russia
  Central Russia
  Povolzhye (Volga river basin)
  Southern Russia
  Ural Mountains
  Western Siberia
  Eastern Siberia
  Far East

‘отографии природы –оссии
  √еографический каталог
  —истематический каталог
  јлфавитный каталог

Nature Landscapes of the World
  North America
  South America

Field Ecology Education
  Instructive Videos
  Instructive Manuals

Ёкологический ÷ентр Ёкосистема на Facebook Ёкологический ÷ентр Ёкосистема ¬ онтакте

ётуб канал Ёкосистема YouTube EcosystemaRu

—качать приложени€ Ёкосистемы Ёко√ид из магазина Google Play / Play Market
—качать приложени€ Ёкосистемы Ёко√ид из AppStore / iTunes
¬идео-360 по экологии на нашем Youtube канале

Bird Decoys for European Birds: Songs, Calls, Sounds, Bird voices - application for Android download from Google Play / Play Market for free

Share this page with your friends:

( ) : : = = + +

Russian Nature

Home | Physical Geography | Biomes & Regions | Environmental Problems | Images of Russian Nature | Nature Reserves

Our Field Ecology Center published more than 180 methodical materials for nature studies. Some of them are in English:
Mobile educational application: Ecological Field Studies Techniques on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of North America: Songs and Calls Decoys on Play.Google WILD FLOWERS OF RUSSIA Field Identification Guide on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Russia on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Russia Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Europe Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google Mobile field guide Birds of Europe Songs, Calls and Voices on Play.Google
Mobile Educational Apps and Field Identification Guides for Russian, European and American Birds
Applications for Android and iOS are available at GooglePlay and AppStore

Please put an active hyperlink to our site (www.rusnature.info) when you copy the materials from this page

Environmental problems of Northern Eurasia

Radioactive Contamination

<<< The Mayak Facility in the Southern Urals | Environmental Problems Index | The Semipalatinsk Test Site >>>

Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk

Three other vast nuclear complexes exist in Eastern Siberia, near the cities of Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk. The former secret city near Tomsk was known as Tomsk-7 (now Seversk), and the two near Krasnoyarsk were called Krasnoyarsk-26 and -45 (now Zheleznogorsk and Zelenogorsk) (Table 19.5). At these plants were located nuclear fuel production reactors, fissile (bomb) materials production, and injection and other storage facilities for high level radioactive wastes. Much of the Krasnoyarsk-26 plant was built underground at huge expense, to protect the operations there from nuclear attack.

Largest uncontained releases of radioactive materials

Table 19.5 Largest uncontained releases of radioactive materials

These locations are the sites of the world's most extensive depositions of uncontained radioactive wastes, totalling an estimated 1.45 billion curies of liquid wastes alone. Table 19.5 identifies Tomsk as the location where the largest releases of radioactive wastes into the environment have taken place (Bradley, 1997). Scientists at the complex state that about 127 000 tonnes of solid radioactive wastes and 33 million cubic metres of liquid radioactive wastes have been stored underground at Tomsk-7 (Izvestia, 1 August 1991). Some liquid wastes have been discharged directly into the Tom. It has been reported that the storage ponds at Tomsk-7 contain radioactive wastes at essentially the same levels as Lake Karachai at the Mayak plant, often termed the most contaminated place on earth (Nuclear Safety and Cleanup Report, May 1994).

Injections of liquid wastes have been carried out at these sites since the 1960s, being pumped into the ground at depths of up to 370 metres (Bradley et al., 1995). These vast quantities of injected high-level wastes do not present an immediate danger to human beings, but as they are uncontained it is possible that they could slowly migrate towards the Yenisey and Ob river systems. Of far more significance are the million curies of radiation released into the Yenisey river from the reactors at Krasnoyarsk-26, of which over 100000 curies remained in 1995 (Bradley, 1997). Although much of this is contained in the bottom sediments, these sediments are subject to extensive scouring in high flood situations (Donnay et al., 1995). All of these potential sources of environmental contamination are being continuously monitored.

Tomsk-7 became known to most non-Russians in 1993, when a widely reported accident occurred at its Siberian Chemical Combine on 6 April of that year. A chemical explosion occurred in a large uranium processing tank, destroying the tank and much of the building that housed it, and sending a radioactive plume several tens of kilometres to the north-east (Bradley, 1997). Although not nearly as large as the explosions at Chernobyl or Mayak, the Tomsk accident contaminated about 123 km2, most of which was a very low populated area (Gilbert, 1993). However, it did include two nearby villages, one of which, Georgievka, required decontamination procedures. Children were evacuated from Georgievka, but not until more than a week had elapsed following the explosion (Donnay et al., 1995).

<<< The Mayak Facility in the Southern Urals | Environmental Problems Index | The Semipalatinsk Test Site >>>



Recommend this page to your friends:

* *